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Citation Guides

Find information below on correct citation styling. 

APA Quick Citation Guide
APA Quick Citation Guide

About APA Style

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style is commonly used when citing references within the “hard” sciences (e.g., astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics) and the social sciences (e.g., anthropology, communications, economics, education, historiography, nursing, political science, psychology, and sociology). The following guide is based on the APA Manual (7th ed.), published in 2019. For more extensive rules and examples of the APA style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (RW BF76.7 .P83 2020, RW BF76.7 .P83 2020 c.2, RW BF76.7 .P83 2020 c.3) or visit the APA Style website. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Guidelines for Formatting Reference List

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style is commonly used when citing references within the “hard” sciences (e.g., astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics) and the social sciences (e.g., anthropology, communications, economics, education, historiography, nursing, political science, psychology, and sociology). The following guide is based on the APA Manual (7th ed.), published in 2019. For more extensive rules and examples of the APA style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (RW BF76.7 .P83 2020, RW BF76.7 .P83 2020 c.2, RW BF76.7 .P83 2020 c.3) or visit the APA Style website. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Guidelines for Formatting Reference List

  • Start the reference list on a new page after the text and before any tables, figures, and/or appendices, continuing the pagination from the body of the paper.  
  • Center the title of the page (References) an inch from the top of the paper.  
  • Use a hanging indent by aligning the start of each entry with the left margin. Indent any subsequent lines one-half inch (or five spaces).
  • Double-space the list within and between entries.  
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by authors’ last names.  
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, proper nouns, and nouns followed by numerals or letters.

Books

Book with One Author or Editor

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation)
(Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase)
(Author Surname, Year)
References
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. DOI or URL for eBooks.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation)
(Masterton, 2006, p. 652)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase)
(Masterton, 2006)
References
Masterton, W. L. (2006). Chemistry: Principles and reactions. Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

Book with Two Authors or Editors

General Format
Citation
Subscripted Number
References
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher. DOI or URL for eBooks.

Example
Citation
Sample sentence1
References
Cesa-Bianchi, N., & Lugosi, G. (2006). Prediction, learning, and games. Cambridge University Press.

Book with Three or More Authors

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname et al, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher. DOI or URL for eBooks.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation)
(Bindler et al., 2017, p. 157)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase)
(Harris et al., 2017)
References
Bindler, R. M., Ball, J., London, M. L., & Davidson, M. R. (2017). Clinical skills manual for maternity and pediatric nursing. Pearson.

Chapters in an Edited Volume/Anthology

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor First Initial. Editor Second Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (inclusive page numbers). Publisher. DOI or URL for eBooks.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Zhao, 2012, p. 27)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Zhao, 2012)

References: Zhao, Y. (2012). American schools possess strengths other countries want to emulate. In J. Bartos (Ed.), Do schools prepare students for a global economy? (pp. 25-33).

Entry in a Reference Work (e.g., Encyclopedia or Dictionary)

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page [if available] or section heading and/or paragraph number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of specific entry. In Editor First Initial. Editor Second Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (edition, inclusive page numbers). Publisher. DOI or URL for eBook.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (McKay, 2004, p. 466)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (McKay, 2004)
References: McKay, D. (2004) Information theory. In R. L. Gregory (Ed.), The Oxford companion to the mind (2nd Ed., pp. 465-467). Oxford University Press.

Periodicals

Journal Article with One Author

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume Number(issue number), inclusive page numbers. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Mancosu, 2021, p. 25)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Mancosu, 2021)
References: Mancosu, P. (2021). Logic and biology: The correspondence between Alfred Tarski and Joseph H. Woodger. Journal of Humanistic Mathematics, 11(2), 18-105.

Journal Article with Two Authors

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume number(issue number), inclusive page numbers. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Bossio & Nelson, 2021, p. 1382)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Bossio & Nelson, 2021)
References: Bossio, D., & Nelson J. L. (2021). Reconsidering innovation: Situating and evaluating change in journalism. Journalism Studies, 22(11), 1377-1381.

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname et al., Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume number(issue number), inclusive page numbers. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Pereira, et al., 2020, p. 769)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Pereira et al., 2020)
References: Pereira, V., Temouri, Y., & Patel, C. (2020). Exploring the role and importance of human capital in resilient high performing organizations: Evidence from business clusters. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 69(3), 769-804. DOI: 10.1111/apps.12204.

Magazine Article with One Author

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine Title, Volume Number(issue number), inclusive page numbers. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Gara, 2021, p. 88)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Gara, 2021)
References: Gara, A. (2021, August/September). The last computer tycoon. Forbes, 204(4), 86-92.

Article in a Newspaper

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper Title, inclusive page numbers or section/column. URL, if applicable.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Hogg, 2021, p. 1)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Hogg, 2021)
References: Hogg, D. (2021, May 39). A final resting place: Rush Center sailor who died at Pearl Harbor laid to rest just before Memorial Day. Great Bend Tribune. https://www.gbtribune.com/‌news/local-news/rush-center-sailor-who-died-pearl-harbor-laid-rest-just-‌memorial-day/.

Websites

Basic Website

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page [if available] or section heading/paragraph number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update or publication date; if unknown, use n.d.). Title of specific webpage. Site name. URL of specific webpage.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (American Anthropological Association, 2021, para. 2)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (American Anthropological Association, 2021)
References: American Anthropological Association. (2021, October 13). Stay informed. American Anthropological Association. https://www.americananthro.org/StayInformed/‌NewsDetail.aspx?‌‌ItemNumber=28190.

Government Publication from a Website

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Government Author, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). URL of specific document.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Library of Congress, 2020, p. 28)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Library of Congress, 2020)
References: Library of Congress. (2020). Annual report of the Librarian of Congress for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2020. https://www.loc.gov/static/portals/about/reports-and-budgets/‌documents/annual-reports/fy2020.pdf.

Online Reference Work

General Format
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname, Year, page [if available] or section heading/paragraph number)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname, Year)
References: Personal or Corporate Author. (Publication or last update date; if unknown, use n.d.). Title of specific entry. In Name of Book. URL of specific webpage.

Example
In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Vogt, 2020, para. 4)
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Vogt, 2020)
References: Vogt, K. (2020). Seneca. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 5, 2021,

Retrieval Dates

• Include a retrieval date with your citation if the website’s content is regularly updated and not archived.

In-text Citations

In-text citations are used to direct the reader to the source listed in the reference page. The general format of an in-text citation is the author’s surname and the year of publication, placed in parenthesis, with a comma separating the two elements. Do not include suffixes and ensure the publication year matches the publication year in the reference list.

If the citation comes at the end of a sentence, place it before the end punctuation.

  • Example: None of the people in the sample group immediately saw the justification of time and expense involved in teaching ethics in organizations (Griffin, 2021).

When the author’s name is provided in the text, only the publication year is needed in the in-text citation.

  • Example: Griffin’s research suggested the enhancement of business ethics in adults can be fulfilled by improving moral and ethical education for children (2021).

If the source has two authors, include both surnames in the in-text citation and separate with an ampersand.

  • Example: The two researchers acknowledged they needed additional interviews in order to develop better content strategy models (McDonald & Hurkhardt, 2021).

If the source has three or more authors, only list the first author’s surname, followed by “et al.”

  • Example: Statistical procedures were utilized in the early years of geography’s theoretical and quantitative revolution (Johnston et al., 2020).

When the author of a source is an organization, use the organization’s full name in the first citation, indicating the proper abbreviation in the citation in brackets. Use the abbreviation in subsequent citations.

  • Citation 1: According to PayScale’s research of the 2016-2017 academic year, individuals with bachelor’s degrees in philosophy tended to earn more over their lifetime than those with degrees in the other humanities fields (American Philosophical Association [APA], n.d.).
  • Citation 2: Moreover, graduates possessing a bachelor of arts degree had a mean starting salary of $43,427 (APA, n.d.).
Chicago Manual Quick Citation Guide
Chicago Manual Quick Citation Guide

About Chicago Manual

The Chicago Manual of Style is commonly used to document sources in the humanities (e.g., history, fine arts, literature, and philosophy). The following guide, using the notes/bibliography style, is based on the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), published in 2017. For more extensive rules and examples of the Chicago Manual style, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (RW Z253 .U69 2017) or visit the Chicago Manual website. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Important Revisions to the 17th Edition

  • Rather than using “ibid” to cite the same source cited in the note immediately preceding your current note, the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual encourages a shortened version of the citation (for example, the author’s last name and page number). With the shortened version of the citation, you must provide the page number you are referencing, even if it is the same page number that was provided in the previous citation.
  • When citing inclusive page numbers, use an en dash rather than a hyphen.
  • When citing an online source, you should use the permalink (also called persistent or stable URLs) over the URL taken by copying the address in the web browser. If you are using an online source that is found through a library or other subscription database, you should name the database rather than providing a permalink. 

Guidelines for Formatting Bibliography

  • Your list of sources is called a “Bibliography” or “References” page.
  • Begin your Bibliography/References on a separate page from your text.
  • Sources are listed in alphabetical order, according to the first word in each source entry.
  • Leave one blank line between each reference
  • Begin each entry at the left margin, and indent any additional lines one‐half inch.
  • For works with two or three authors, write out each author’s name. If the work has four or more authors, provide the first author’s full name plus “et al.”
  • If the work has no author, list it by title.
  • Use DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.

Books and eBooks

Book with One Author or Editor

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Concise Note: Author Surname, Book Title, page number
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year

Example
Full Note: Jay Monaghan, Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), 121.
Concise Note: Monaghan, Civil War on the Western Border, 217.
Bibliography: Monaghan, Jay. Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Book with Two Authors or Editors

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Concise Note: (Author Surname and Author Surname, Book Title, page number)
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial, and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Example
Full Note: Todd R. Clear and George F. Cole, American Corrections, 2nd ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company, 1990), 158.
Concise Note: Clear and Cole, American Corrections, 209.
Bibliography: Clear, Todd R., and George F. Cole. American Corrections, 2nd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company, 1990.

Book with Three Authors or Editors

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Concise Note: (Author Surname, Author Surname, and Author Surname, Book Title, page number)
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial, Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Example
Full Note
Concise Note
Bibliography

Chapter in an Edited Volume/Anthology

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Chapter Title in Quotation Marks,” Book Title: Subtitle, ed. Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Concise Note: Author Surname and Author Surname, Book Title, page number.
Bibliography: Surname, Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Chapter Title in Quotation Marks.” Book Title: Subtitle, edited by Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Example
Full Note: Samuel Langhorne Clemons, “Keelboat Life,” American is West: An Anthology of Middlewestern Life and Literature, ed. J. T. Flanagan (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1945), 351.
Concise Note: Clemons, “Keelboat Life,” 351.
Bibliography: Clemons, Samuel Langhorne. “Keelboat Life.” American is West: An Anthology of Middlewestern Life and Literature. Edited by J. T. Flanagan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1945.

eBook

General Format
Full Note
Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Format, page number.
Concise Note: Author Surname, Book Title, page number
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). Book Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
Full Note: Simon Ball, Secret History: Writing the Rise of Britain’s Intelligence Service (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020), PDF, 42–43.
Concise Note: Ball, Secret History, 74.
Bibliography: Ball, Simon, Secret History: Writing the Rise of Britain’s Intelligence Service (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020. PDF. https://search.ebscohost.com/‌login.aspx?direct=true&db=e900xww&AN=2399463&site=ehost-live.

Entry in a Reference Work (e.g., Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Title of Entry,” Title of Reference Work, ed. Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Title of Entry,” page number.
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Entry.” Title of Reference Work, edited by Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Example
Full Note: Hämäläinen, Pekka, “Santa Fe Trail,” The Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, ed. D. J. Wishart (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004), 811.
Concise Note: Hämäläinen, “Santa Fe Trail,” 811.
Bibliography: Pekka Hämäläinen. “Santa Fe Trail.” The Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, edited by D. J. Wishart. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.

Periodicals

Print Periodical Article with One Author

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Article Title,” Periodical Title volume number, issue number (Year): page number.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Article Title,” page number.
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Article Title.” Periodical Title volume number, issue number (Month Day, Year).

Example
Full Note: Tim Stuart-Buttle, “‘An Authority from Which There Can Be No Appeal’: The Place of Cicero in Hume’s Science of Man,” The Journal of Scottish Philosophy 18, no. 3 (2020): 291.
Concise Note: Stuart-Buttle, “‘An Authority from Which There Can Be No Appeal’,” 293.
Bibliography: Stuart-Buttle, Tim. “‘An Authority from Which There Can Be No Appeal’: The Place of Cicero in Hume’s Science of Man.” The Journal of Scottish Philosophy 18, no. 3 (September 2020).

Article in an Online Periodical

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Article Title,” Periodical Title volume number (Year): page number, DOI or URL of journal article webpage or name of database.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Article Title,” page number.
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Article Title.” Periodical Title volume number, issue number (Year): inclusive page numbers of article. DOI or URL of periodical article webpage or name of database.

Example
Full Note: Suzanne Bailey, “Robert Browning,” Victorian Poetry 58, no. 3 (2020): 249, DOI: 10.1353/vp.2020.0020.
Concise Note: Bailey, “Robert Browning,” 249.
Bibliography: Bailey, Suzanne. “Robert Browning.” Victorian Poetry 58, no. 3 (Fall 2020): 249. DOI: 10.1353/vp.2020.0020.

Periodical Article with Two Authors

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Article Title,” Periodical Title volume number (Year): page number, DOI or URL, if applicable.
Concise Note: (Author Surname and Author Surname, “Article Title,” page number.
Bibliography:Surname, Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable), and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. “Article Title.” Periodical Title volume number, issue number (Month Day, Year). DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
Full Note: Ferreira Cury and Maria Zilda, “Os Sertões, de Euclides da Cunha: Espaços,” Luso-Brazilian Review 41, no. 1 (2004): 73, DOI: 10.1353/lbr.2004.0006.
Concise Note: Cury and Zilda, “Os Sertões,” 77.
Bibliography: Cury Ferreira, and Maria Zilda. “Os Sertões, de Euclides da Cunha: Espaços.” Luso-Brazilian Review 41, no. 1 (2004): 73. DOI: 10.1353/lbr.2004.0006.

Article in a Newspaper

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Article Title”
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial. “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year. DOI or URL, if applicable.

Example
Full Note: Doyle Rice, “When Were the Vikings in the Americas? Exactly 1,000 Years Ago, Study Says,” USA Today, October 21, 2021.
Concise Note: Rice, “When Were the Vikings in the Americas?”
Bibliography: Rice, Doyle. “When Were the Vikings in the Americas? Exactly 1,000 Years Ago, Study Says,” USA Today, October 21, 2021.

Websites

Website

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Title of Page,” Title or Owner of Site, date last revised or accessed, URL.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Title of Page.”
Bibliography: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). Title or Owner of Site. Date last revised or accessed. URL.

Example
Full Note: History.com Editors, “Kansas,” History.com, August 21, 2018, https://www.history.com/‌topics/us-states/kansas.
Concise Note: History.com Editors, “Kansas.”
Bibliography: History.com Editors. “Kansas.” History.com. August 21, 2018. https://www.history.com/‌topics/us-states/kansas.

Online Reference Work

General Format
Full Note: Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname, “Title of Entry,” Title of Reference Work, ed. Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname (Publisher, Year), URL.
Concise Note: Author Surname, “Title of Entry.”
Bibliography: Surname, Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Entry.” Title of Reference Work, edited by Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Publisher, Year. URL.

Example
Full Note: Martha Royce Blaine, “Prairie Tribes,” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, ed. Frederick E. Hoxie (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996), https://search.ebscohost.com/‌login.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=12594037&site=ehost-live.
Concise Note: Royce Blaine, “Prairie Tribes.”
Bibliography: Royce Blaine, Martha. “Prairie Tribes.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996. https://search.ebscohost.com/‌login.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=12594037&site=ehost-live.

Formatting Notes

  • Note reference numbers in the text appear as superscript numbers.
  • Footnotes or endnotes are numbered consecutively, beginning with 1. Each chapter or section of a text should restart the consecutive numbering, unless the text has no internal divisions.
  • Note numbers are generally placed at the end of the sentence, after punctuation. Note numbers are also placed after the punctuation and quotation marks when citing a direct quote. 
  • Subsequent citations of the same source, either immediately following the initial citation or later in the chapter, should use a shortened form of the citation.
  • The shortened citation is generally the last name of the author and the main title of the work, shortened if the title is more than four words.
  • If the work has more 2 or 3 authors, list each author’s last name. If the work has 4 or more authors, use the first author’s last name and “et al.”

MLA Quick Citation Guide
MLA Quick Citation Guide

About MLA Style

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is commonly used to cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities (e.g., the arts, cultural studies, language, literature, philosophy, and religion). This guide reflects the MLA Handbook (8th ed.) published in 2016. For more extensive rules and examples of the MLA style, refer to the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. (LB2369 .G53 2016 c.3, RW LB2369 .G53 2016, RW LB2369 .G53 2016 c.2) or visit the MLA Style website. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Guidelines for Formatting Works Cited Page

  • Start the works cited list on a new page, continuing the page numbers from the body of the paper.
  • Center the title of the page (Works Cited) an inch from the top of the paper.
  • Align the start of each entry with the left margin. Indent any subsequent lines one‐half inch (or five spaces).
  • Double‐space the list within and between entries.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by author’s last names or by title for sources with no authors.
  • Capitalize the first word and all other principal words of the titles and subtitles of cited works list (do not capitalize articles, prepositions, coordinating conjunctions, or the “to” in infinitives.) 

Books

Print Book with One Author

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). Book Title. Publisher, Year.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Kaye 33)
Works Cited: Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. Hill and Wang, 2005.

Books with Two Authors

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname and Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) and Author First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Book Title. Publisher, Year.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Gordon and Browne 241)
Works Cited: Gordon, Anne Miles, and Kathryn Williams Browne. Beginnings and Beyond: Foundations in Early Childhood Education. 6th ed. Delmar Learning, 2004.

Book with Three or More Authors

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname et al. page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial. Book Title. Publisher, Year.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Harris et al. 455)
Works Cited: Harris, Phillip R., Moran, Robert T., & Moran, Susan V. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21st Century. Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004.

Chapter in an Edited Volume/Anthology

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Chapter Title in Quotation Marks.” Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable) Surname. Publisher, Year, inclusive page numbers.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Emerson 865)
Works Cited: Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Self-Reliance.” Anthology of American Literature, Volume 1: Colonial Through Romantic, edited by George McMichael. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, 1997, 862-879.

eBook

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). Book Title. Publisher, Year. Database Name, DOI or URL.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Roesner and Kendrick 112)
Works Cited: Roesner, David, and Lynne Kendrick, eds. Theatre Noise: The Sound of Performance. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/‌login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=539871&site=‌ehost-live.

Periodicals

Article in a Print Journal

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Article.” Journal Title, volume number, issue number, Year, inclusive page numbers of article.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Beyer 5)
Works Cited: Beyer, Peter. “Religion in Interesting Times: Contesting Form, Function, and Future.” Sociology of Religion, vol. 81, no. 1, 2020, 1-19.

Article in an Online Journal

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Article Title.” Journal Title, volume number, issue number (Year): inclusive page numbers of article, DOI or URL of periodical article webpage.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Beyers 174)
Works Cited: Faber, Rima. “Dance and Early Childhood Cognition: The Isadora Effect.” Arts Education Policy Review, vol. 118, no. 3 (2017): 172-182, DOI: 10.1080/10632913.2016.1245166.

Article in an Online Database

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Article Title.” Journal Title, volume number, issue number (Month Year): inclusive page numbers of article. Database Name, DOI or URL of periodical article webpage.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Güremen 573)
Works Cited: Güremen, Refik. “Philosophy as Art in Aristotle’s Protrepticus.” Metaphilosophy, vol. 51, no. 4 (July 2020): 571-592. EBSCOhost, DOI: 10.1111/meta.12448.

Article in a Newspaper or Magazine

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname page number)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Article.” Newspaper or Magazine Title [City], Day Month Year, page(s).

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Fauntleroy 62)
Works Cited: Fauntleroy, Gussie. “Jazz in the Brushstrokes.” Southwest Art, June/July 2021, 60-63.

Websites and Other Online Sources

Website

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname)
Works Cited: Author Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Page or Document.” Website Title, Day Month Year, DOI or URL as appropriate.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Hamilton et al.)
Works Cited: Hamilton, Alexander, Jay, John, and Madison, James. “Full Text of The Federalist Papers.” Library of Congress, accessed 9 November 2021, https://guides.loc.gov/‌federalist-papers/full-text.

Podcasts

General Format
Parenthetical Citation: (Creator Surname, Title of Episode)
Works Cited: Creator Surname, First Name Second Name or Initial (if applicable). “Title of Episode.” Podcast Title, Name of Publisher, Day Month Year, https://URL.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Bolt and Roskam, “Great Books”)
Works Cited: Bolt, Andrew, and John Roskam. “Episode 9: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.” The Great Books of Literature Podcast, Institute of Public Affairs, 6 December 2018, https://ipa.org.au/ipa-today/the-great-books-of-literature-podcast-epis….

Parenthetical Citations

General Format

In‐text citations should be used to direct the reader to the source listed in your works cited page. The general format of an in‐text citation is the first element of the source’s entry (this is typically the author’s last name) in the works‐cited page and the page number. These are placed in a parenthesis. As of the 8th edition, MLA now requires URLs or DOIs for electronic sources.

Guidelines for Online Sources

  • The typical format for an in‐text citation is the first element of the source’s entry in the works‐cited page and the page number.
  • The in‐text citation is placed in a parenthesis.
  • When following a direct quote, the in‐ text citation is placed after the closing quotation mark. 
  • When the author’s name is provided in the text, only the page number is needed in the in‐text citation. 
  • If your quotation is more than four lines of your text, it should be indented half an inch from the left margin. The in‐text citation is placed after the last punctuation mark of the blocked quote. 
  • If the works cited reference begins with the title of the work, either because the author is unknown or is an organization, the in‐text citation begins with an abbreviated form of the title. 
  • If providing the author’s last name does not provide sufficient information to pinpoint the source in the works cited (i.e., multiple authors with the same last name or multiple works by the same author), provide enough information to identify the individual source, such as the first letter of the author’s last name or a shortened version of the title.
  • For sources that do not have page numbers, such as websites, the page number should be omitted in the in‐text citation.
ACS Quick Citation Guide
ACS Quick Citation Guide

About ACS Style

The American Chemical Society (ACS) Style may be used when citing references within the field of chemistry. The following guide is based on the ACS Style Guide (3rd ed.), published in 2006. For more extensive rules and examples of the ACS Style, refer to the ACS Style Quick Guide. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Guidelines for Formatting Reference List

  • Start the reference list on a new page, continuing the page numbers from the body of the paper.  
  • Center the title of the page (References) an inch from the top of the paper.  
  • Align the start of each entry with the left margin. Indent any subsequent lines one-half inch (or five spaces).  
  • Double-space the list within and between entries.  
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by author’s last names.  
  • If there is no author, begin the citation with the title of the source.

Access Dates

  • Include an access date with your citation if the website’s born-digital content is regularly updated and not archived.

Books

Book with One Author or Editor

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Book Title, Edition Number; Series Information (if applicable); Publisher, Year. URL for eBooks.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Peller, 109)
References: Peller, J. Exploring Chemistry: Laboratory Experiments in General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Pearson Education, 2004.

Book with Two Authors or Editors

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname and Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable).; Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. Book Title, Edition Number (if applicable); Series Information (if applicable); Publisher, Year. URL for eBooks.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Stewart and Lomont, 76)
References: Stewart, I.; Lomont, J. The Handy Chemistry Answer Book; Visible Ink Press, 2014.

Book with Three or More Authors

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname et al., Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable).; Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable).; Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable).; etc. Book Title, Edition Number; Series Information (if applicable); Publisher, Year. URL for eBooks.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Bettelheim et al., 375)
References: Bettelheim, F.; Brown, W.; Campbell, M.; etc. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8th ed.; Thomson, Brooks/Cole, 2007.

Chapters in an Edited Volume/Anthology

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Chapter Name. In Book Title, Edition Number; Series Information (if applicable); Publisher, Year; inclusive page numbers. URL for eBooks.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: Renneboog described ammonia as a simple compound that is comprised of a single nitrogen atom chemically boned to a trio of hydrogen atoms.
References: Renneboog, R. Ammonium Ion. In Principles of Chemistry; Grey House Publishing, 2016; pp 66-67.

Entry in a Reference Work (e.g., Encyclopedia or Dictionary)

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Entry Title. In Book Title, Edition Number; Publisher, Year; Vol. Number, inclusive page numbers. URL for eBooks.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary (2) defines an impeller as “A type of agitator use in mixing or blending fluids of low viscosity, usually in a cylindrical chamber, either open or closed.”
References: Impeller. In Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 16th ed.; Wiley, 2016; pp 753.

Periodicals

Journal Article with One Author

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Title of Article.  Journal Title, Year, Volume Number (Issue Number), inclusive page numbers. DOI if applicable.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Nelson, 2019)
References: Nelson, P. G. What is Chemistry That I May Teach It? Foundations of Chemistry, 2019, 21 (2), pp 179-191. DOI: 10.1007/s10698-018-9315-x.

Journal Article with Two Authors

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable); Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Title of Article. Journal Title, Year, Volume Number (Issue Number), inclusive page numbers. DOI if applicable.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: Blumenthal and Ladyman, 2018)
References: Blumenthal, G.; Ladyman; J. Theory Comparison and Choice in Chemistry, 1766-1791. Foundations of Chemistry, 2018, 20 (3), pp 169-189.

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname et al., Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable); et al. Title of Article. Journal Title, Year, Volume Number (Issue Number), inclusive page numbers. DOI if applicable.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Sadjadi et al., 2019)
References: Sadjadi, S; et al. Combination of Polymer and Halloysite Chemistry for Development of a Novel Catalytic Hybrid System. Research on Chemical Intermediaries, 2019, 45 (9), pp 4349-4366.

Article in a Newspaper

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Title of Article. Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, date last updated (if applicable). DOI if applicable.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Leiker, 2013)
References: Leiker, A. R. Professor Leaves $2.2 Million to WSU Chemistry Department. Wichita Eagle, November 2, 2013.

Websites

Basic Website

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Creator Name or Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Title of Article. Website Name. Publisher, Year.  URL (access date).

Example
Parenthetical Citation: The guidelines(1) were designed to promote education of the highest quality for students at every two-year college program in the nation.
References: Society Committee on Education. ACS Guidelines for Chemistry in Two-Year College Programs. American Chemical Society, 2021. https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/‌education/policies/two-year-college.html (accessed 2021-11-09)

Government Publication from a Website

Parenthetical Citation: (Creator Name, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Name of Government Agency. Publication Number. Publication Title, Edition Number, last revision date. URL (access date).

Example
Parenthetical Citation: According to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research2, the manufacturer’s quality system is vital to guaranteeing continued quality control of products.
References: Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Applying ICH Q8(R2), Q9, and Q10 Principles to Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Review, rev. 05. 2016. https://www.fda.gov/media/‌79615/download (accessed 2021-11-09).

Entry in Online Reference Work

Parenthetical Citation: (Author Surname, Year) or (Italicized Number) or superscript number
References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial (if applicable). Title of Entry. Reference Work Title, Edition Number; Year. URL.

Example
Parenthetical Citation: (Hanson, 2017)
References: Hanson, C. Chemical Engineering. Encyclopedia Britannica; 2017. https://‌www.britannica.com/technology/chemical-engineering (accessed Nov. 9, 2021).

CSE Quick Citation Guide
CSE Quick Citation Guide

About CSE Style

The Council of Scientific Editors’ (CSE) Style Manual may be used when citing references in all disciplines of science and related fields. The following guide, using the citation-sequence system, is based on the CSE Manual (8th ed.), published in 2015. For more extensive rules and examples of the CSE Style, refer to the Scientific Style and Format Quick Guide. You can also ask a librarian for assistance.

Guidelines for In-Text Citations

  • In the citation-sequence system, references are given superscripted numbers before the final punctuation mark of the sentence. These are sequentially numbered in the order in which they first appear in the text.
  • The next time the same source is referenced, regardless of where in the paper that citation occurs, the same superscripted number will be used.
  • It is possible to cite more than one reference within a sentence by using superscript sequence of numbers separated by commas (no spaces).
  • If three or more numbers are used in one continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.
  • The citations are listed numerically in the References page(s).

Guidelines for Formatting Reference List

  • Start the reference list on a new page, continuing the page numbers from the body of the paper.  
  • The title of the page (“References”) should be placed flush-left an inch from the top of the page.  
  • CSE does not specify a preferred line spacing, but for reading clarity double-space the list within and between entries.  
  • Arrange entries flush-left and numerically by their in-text order of appearance.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title, proper nouns, and nouns followed by numerals or letters.
  • Journal titles are condensed according to the ISSN International Centre’s List of Title Word Abbreviations, which shortens significant words and omits insignificant ones.
  • If sources were used but not cited in the paper, list them alphabetically by author under the heading “Additional References.”

Books

Book with One Author or Editor

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Book title: subtitle. Edition. City of Publication (State): Publisher; Year.

Example
In-Text Citation: The release or absorption of heat is a central factor in any chemical reaction, condensation process, or phase change within a planet’s atmosphere1.
References: 1Lewis JS. Physics and chemistry of the solar system. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004.

Book with Two or More Authors or Editors

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial, Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Book title: subtitle. Edition. City of Publication (State): Publisher; Year.

Example
In-Text Citation: There are multiple definitions for the term data cluster, so the researchers examined several clustering criteria2.
References: 2Price KV, Storn RM, Lampinen JA. Differential evolution: a practical approach to global optimization. Berlin: Springer; 2005.

Chapters in an Edited Volume/Anthology

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Title of chapter. In: Editor Surname First InitialSecond Initial, editor(s), Book title: subtitle. Edition. City of Publication (State), Publisher; Year. inclusive page numbers of chapter.

Example
In-Text Citation: Another vital factor in computer security is that of network security3.
References: 3Zimmer, S. Computer security. In: Franceschetti DR, editor. Principles of computer science. Ipswich (MA): Salem Press; 2016. p. 81-83.

Entry in a Print Reference Work (e.g., Encyclopedia or Dictionary)

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Title of specific entry. In: Editor Surname First InitialSecond Initial (Ed.), Book title: subtitle. Edition. Volume number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Inclusive page numbers.

Example
In-Text Citation: Esophageal cancer ranks as the eighth most common cancer in the world4.
References: 4Pescarus R, Dunst CM. Esophageal cancer. In: Miller KD, Simon M (Eds.), Global perspectives on cancer: incidence, care, and experience. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara (CA): Praeger; 2015. p. 87-100.

eBook

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname, First InitialSecond Initial. Book title: subtitle. Edition. City of Publication (State): Publisher; Year [accessed date]. URL.

Example
In-Text Citation: Discovered in the late 1980s and early 1990s, angiogenesis (VEGF) is the most widespread proangiogenic factor implicated in cancer growth5.
References: 5Ruddon RW. Cancer biology. 4th ed. New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 2007 [accessed 2021 Nov. 17]. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=‌e000xna&AN=‌191548&site=‌ehost-live.

Periodicals

Print Journal Article with One Author

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Article title: subtitle. Abbreviated journal title. Year; Volume(issue):inclusive page numbers.

Example
In-Text Citation: The size of protein fibers determine the quantity of contact sites, which are slightly connected to force transmission and propagation6.
References: 6Engelke H. Physics of the extracellular matrix and biology of tumors—a close relationship. Biophys. reviews & letters. 2020;15(3):121-130.

Journal Article with Two or More Authors

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial, Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Article title: subtitle. Abbreviated journal title. Year;Volume(issue):inclusive page numbers.

Example
In-Text Citation: Disembedding has been identified by professional meteorologists as an important spatial thinking skill7.
References: 7McNeal P, Petcovic H, Bals-Elsholz T, Ellis T. Seeing weather through chaos: a case study of disembedding skills in undergraduate meteorology students. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2019;100(6):997-1010.

Journal Article from a Database

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial, Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial, Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Article title. Abbreviated journal title [Internet]. Year Month Day [accessed Year Month Day];inclusive page numbers. URL.

Example
In-Text Citation: Between 1985 and 2014, large wildfires in the Great Plains region increased significantly, with high temperatures, low humidity, and greater wind speeds being contributing factors8, 9.
References: 8Steiner JL, Wetter J, Robertson S, Teet S, Wang J, Wu X, Zhou Y, Brown D, Xiao X. Grassland wildfires in the Southern Great Plains: monitoring ecological impacts and recovery. Remote Sens. [Internet]. 2020 Feb. [accessed 2021 Nov. 30];12(4):619. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/12/4/619/htm.
9Tavakol A, Rahmani, Harrington J. Temporal and spatial variations in the frequency of compound hot, dry, and windy events in the central United States. Sci. Reps. [Internet]. 2020 Sept. 24 [accessed 2021 Nov. 30];10(15691):1-13. https://www.nature.com/articles/‌s41598-020-72624-0.

Magazine Article with One Author

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Article title: subtitle. Abbreviated magazine title. Year Month Day:inclusive page numbers.

Example
In-Text Citation: Scientists at a Boston-based biotech company have recreated the scent of H. wilderianus using DNA reconstruction and synthetic biology10.
References: 10Gibbens S. Smell. Natl. geo. 2021 Dec:26-28.

Online Newspaper Article

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Article title. Newspaper Title. Year Month Day [accessed Year Month Day]. URL

Example
In-Text Citation: Two acre feet of water is needed to produce a crop of irrigated corn11.
References: 11Mannette A. Kansas State lands $10 million grant to study farm inputs, including water, and how much product they can produce. Hutchinson News. 2021 Oct. 4 [accessed 2021 Nov. 30]. https://www.hutchnews.com/story/news/2021/10/04/kansas-state-university….

Websites

Basic Webpage

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Title of webpage. City of publication (State): Publisher; [updated Year Month Day; accessed Year Month Day]. URL.

Example
In-Text Citation: The Apollo 11 lunar module, known as Eagle, set down in the Moon’s Sea of Tranquility at 4:17 pm EDT on July 20, 196912.
References: 12Humans in space. Washington (DC): National Space and Aeronautical Administration; [updated 2021 July 20; accessed 2021 Dec. 1]. https://www.nasa.gov/topics/humans-in-space.

Government Publication from a Website

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Name of Government Agency or Department (US) [Abbreviation of Agency or Department]. Title of document. City of publication (State): Publisher; Year Month. Number of pages. Availability statement: URL.

Example
In-Text Citation: In FY 2020, the Library of Congress began receiving via transfer approximately 250,000 deaccessioned maps from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency13.
References: 13Library of Congress. (US) [LOC]. Annual report of the Librarian of Congress for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2020. Washington (DC): LOC; 2020 Sept. 94 p. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/static/portals/about/reports-and-budgets/‌documents/annual-reports/‌fy2020.pdf.

Entry in an Online Reference Work (e.g., Encyclopedia or Dictionary)

General Format
In-Text Citation: Superscripted Number(s)
References: Author Surname First InitialSecond Initial. Title of specific entry. In: Editor Surname First InitialSecond Initial (Ed.), Book title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Volume number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [accessed Year Month Day]. URL

Example
In-Text Citation: Artifacts dating from 30,000 BCE have been discovered throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe bearing rudimentary calendars that chart the phases of the moon14.
References: 14Bullock MA. Astronomy. In: Mitcham C (Ed.), Encyclopedia of science, technology, and ethics. Vol. 1. Detroit (MI): Macmillan Reference; 2005. [accessed 2021 November 30]. https://go.gale.com/ps/retrieve.do?resultListType=RELATED_DOCUMENT&sear….